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Potential prediction of formulation performance in paediatric patients using biopharmaceutical tools and simulation of clinically relevant administration scenarios of nifedipine and lorazepam

Article date: August 2019

By: Anna C. Van der Vossen, Lidwien M. Hanff, Arnold G. Vulto, Nikoletta Fotaki in Volume 85, Issue 8, pages 1728-1739


This study explores the impact of paediatric patient related factors and choice of formulation on the dissolution characteristics of nifedipine and lorazepam, 2 drug substances regularly applied in very young patients and in compounded formulations.


Dissolution experiments were designed to reflect clinical practice in a paediatric hospital, with respect to dosage forms, feeding regimens and methods of administration. Solubility studies addressed the influence of age and prandial state. Drug solubility and dissolution experiments were conducted in biorelevant media and adapted age‐specific (neonate and infant) media. Dissolution studies were performed with the mini‐paddle apparatus and the flow‐through cell apparatus.


Dissolution of nifedipine formulations was not affected by age‐related changes of the fasted state simulated gastrointestinal fluids, and by disintegration of the formulation before administration. However, a significant difference in nifedipine's dissolution rate from commercial tablets and compounded capsules was observed. The dissolution of lorazepam tablets was affected by fasted‐ vs fed‐state media, but it was deemed less likely to be clinically relevant. The significant effect of fed‐state media on nifedipine's solubility was considered to have possible clinical relevance since very young patients are almost continuously in a fed state.


The in vitro results obtained from these studies reveal the potential of biorelevant solubility and dissolution studies reflecting clinical practice to predict drug performance in paediatric patients.

DOI: 10.1111/bcp.13956

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