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Leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) inhibitors differentially modulate glutamate release and Serine935 LRRK2 phosphorylation in striatal and cerebrocortical synaptosomes

Article date: June 2019

By: Daniela Mercatelli, Paolo Bolognesi, Martina Frassineti, Clarissa A. Pisanò, Francesco Longo, Derya R. Shimshek, Michele Morari in Volume 7, Issue 3, pages n/a-n/a

Mutations in leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been pathogenically linked to Parkinson's disease, and pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 is being pursued to tackle nigro‐striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, LRRK2 kinase inhibitors may have manifold actions, affecting not only pathological mechanisms in dopaminergic neurons but also physiological functions in nondopaminergic neurons. Therefore, we investigated whether LRRK2 kinase inhibitors differentially modulate dopamine and glutamate release from the mouse striatum and cerebral cortex. Spontaneous and KCl‐evoked [3H]‐dopamine and glutamate release from superfused synaptosomes obtained from wild‐type and LRRK2 knock‐out, kinase‐dead or G2019S knock‐in mice was measured. Two structurally unrelated inhibitors, LRRK2‐IN‐1 and GSK2578215A, were tested. LRRK2, phosphoSerine1292 and phosphoSerine935 LRRK2 levels were measured in all genotypes, and target engagement was evaluated by monitoring phosphoSerine935 LRRK2. LRRK2‐IN‐1 inhibited striatal glutamate but not dopamine release; GSK2578215A inhibited striatal dopamine and cortical glutamate but enhanced striatal glutamate release. LRRK2‐IN‐1 reduced striatal and cortical phosphoSerine935 levels whereas GSK2578215A inhibited only the former. Neither LRRK2 inhibitor affected neurotransmitter release in LRRK2 knock‐out and kinase‐dead mice; however, they facilitated dopamine without affecting striatal glutamate in G2019S knock‐in mice. GSK2578215A inhibited cortical glutamate release in G2019S knock‐in mice. We conclude that LRRK2‐IN‐1 and GSK2578215A modulate exocytosis by blocking LRRK2 kinase activity, although their effects vary depending on the nerve terminal examined. The G2019S mutation unravels a dopamine‐promoting action of LRRK2 inhibitors while blunting their effects on glutamate release, which highlights their positive potential for the treatment of PD, especially of LRRK2 mutation carriers.

DOI: 10.1002/prp2.484

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